F.Y.B.Sc. Practicals

F.Y.B.Sc. Practicals 
According to Savitri Bai Fule Pune University, Pune

              Scientific grouping of organism (bacteria, fungi, plant and animal) in hierarchial series of group on basis of morphological and evolutionary relationship
# Need:-
           Number of animal and plant more in living world,  so it is difficult to us to studied each and every organism, so classification is essential and we studied group of organism of classification
# Advantages of biological classification
1) Biological classification make study easier
2) Biological classification fascilitates identification of living organism
3) Provide information of organism as a group
4) By help of biological classification, we studied type of group in living world
5) Biological classification establish evolutionary relationship between organism
# Scope Of biological Classification :-
- help In identification of organism
- Provide phylogenetic relationship between organism
- Studied all living organism as group
# System Of Classification :-
1) Two system of classification :-
              This system of classification was given by Aristotle, theophratus and carolous lienneaeus. According to him all the living organism classified into Two kingdom plantae and Animalia
-Kingdom Plantae:-
   # They grow throughout life ,so have unlimited growth
  # They have different shapes and form
  # Have phenomenon of locomotion absent
  # Have autotrophic nutrition
  # Cell have cell have and chloroplast where as centriole and lysosomes absent
  # They Respond to stimuli
  # During respiration they intake O2 Oxidation of food take place and remove CO2
- Kingdom Animalia :-
   # Grow upto a certain age of life. That mean limited growth take place
  #  have definate shape and form
  # Have movement and locomotion
  # Have heterotrophic nutrition
  # There cell have no Cell wall and chloroplasts whereas,  centriole and lysosomes present
  # They respond to stimuli
# They excrete metabolic waste product
  # higher animal circulatory system present in which blood flow
Drawback :-
-This system of classification do not have the place for prokaryotes
- Don’t place for unicelluler organism
- Don’t have place for organism which grow on dead decaying organic matter
3) Three System Of Classification :-
                   Given by Ernest Haeckel. He gave kingdom Prostista for all Eukaryotes, unicelluler organism
i) Plantae
ii) Animalia
iii) Prostista
3) Four System Of Classification :-
           Given by Copeland, According to him all prokaryotes comes under kingdom monera
i) Plantae
ii) Animalae
iii) Prostista
iv) Monera
4) Five Kingdom system :-
                 Was given by R.H. Whittaker, he gave the term fungi for Eukaryotes, saprophytic living organism. This is most accepted system of classification, based on
- Structure of cell :-
            May be Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
- Organisation :-
          May be unicelluler or multicelluler
- Nutriention :-
             May be autotrophic,  heterotrophic and saprophytic
- Ecological role :-
          May be composer, producer and decomposer
# Kingdom Monera :-
1. They are prokaryotes,  no definate nucleus present in it
2. They are unicelluler organism
3. Cell wall non-cellulosic and made up of peptidoglycan
4. They may be aututrophes or heterotrophes
5. Have 9+0 arrangement of microtubules in structure of cilia and flagella
6. Circular DNA present in the cytoplasm without histone protein
7. Ribosome 70s type
# Kingdom Prostista :-
- Eukaryotes, definate nucleus present
- They are unicelluler organism
- They are autotrophes or heterotrophes
-Have 9+2 arrangement of microtubule in structure of cilia and flagella
- Linear DNA present in nucleus with histone protein
- Ribosome 80s type
# Kingdom Fungi:-
1. They are Eukaryotes
2. May be unicelluler or multicelluler living organism
3. Grown up on dead, decaying organic matter ,so have sporophytic nutrition
4. Cell wall is non-cellulosic and made up of chitin
5. They have 9+2 arrangement of microtubule in structure of cilia and flagella
6. Called Decomposer b’coz help in recycling of material
# Kingdom Plantae
- They are Eukaryotes, definate nucleus present
- They are multicelluler
- Cell wall made up of cellulose
- Have autotrophic nutrition
- Called producer
- Have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules found In structure of cilia and flagella
# Kingdom Animalia :-
1. They are Eukaryotes
2. They are multicelluler organism
3. Cell wall absent
4. Have heterotrophic nutrition
5. They are consumer, b’coz feed other for food
:::::::: Monera ::::::::::
            Includes all prokaryotes, monera Kingdom consist of bacteria, Archaebacteria, Actinomycetes, Mycoplasma and Cyanobacteria
Bacteria :-
     Are minute unicelluler, microscopic organism. Which do not contain nucleus, study of bacteria called Bacteriology
Anton Von Leuwenhook discovered the bacteria firstly,
@ Habitat :-
           Bacteria found every where soil ,water, air or inside body of living organism, some bacteria are thermophilic which survive at high temperature and some are thermoaquaticus, some live at low temperature called Pstchrophilic
# Types of Reproduction :-
1. Asexual reproduction :-
             Take place by binary fission. In this process DNA of bacteria duplicate and bacteria divides into two and ultimately two bacteria formed
2. Sexual reproduction :-
            Take place by conjugation, transformation and transduction
- Conjugation :-
            In this type of sexual reproduction two different type of bacteria combine by help of sex pili and one bacterium transfer the genetic material from donor to receipient bacterium through sex pili
- Transformation :-
             Transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another bacterium without vector called transformation
# Arechaebacteria :-
             Oldest group of bacteria, they come under gram positive bacteria, they are of 3 type
1. Methanogen :-
            Bacteria which grown in marshy areas and produce CH4 gas,  generally present in stomach of cattle. These methanogen comes out from body of cattle along cow dung and help in production of biogas
2. Halophiles :-
               Bacteria which present In saline environment
3. Thermoacidophiles :-
               Bacteria grown in hot and acidic medium
# Actinomycetes :-
            Elongated simple unbranched microscopic organism, they are gram positive bacteria, grown up on dead decaying organic matter, they are aseptate.  They are facultative anaerobic, they asexually reproduce by fragmentation as well as at chain of spores in form of conidia, they produce some medicine like as antibiotic Streptomycin
# Mycoplasma :-
                Have simplest organisation, they are also called jokers of Kingdom monera because they are pleomorphic in nature or found in many forms sMallest cell PPLO comes under mycoplasma, they have no cell wall, there body covered by plasma membrane inside It cytoplasm present ,cytoplasm contain circular DNA, 70s ribosome, RNA, granules and protein
# Cyanobacteria :-
                Also called BGA (Blue green algae) .they are photosynthetic bacteria. In structure of cyanobacteria Cell wall form outer layer and made up of peptidoglycan. Inner to cell wall cell wall membrane present, Circular DNA present without histone protein present in the cytoplasm they have thyllakoid in the cytoplasm. Granules also present in it, 70s ribosome present, protein crystal also present, they are gram negative bacteria, they contain chlorophyll a & c in thyllakoid. In BGA phycocyanine and xanthin present
# Useful activity :-
- Some bacteria like spirulina act as single cell protein
- Nostoc and anabina Help in N2 fixation
# Harmful activity :-
1. Some cyanobacteria cause the disease in plant as well as as in animal
::::::::: Protista ::::::::::::
- they are Eukaryotes and unicelluler living organism
- They have autotrophic or holozoic ,saprophytic and parasitic nutrition
- Found every where in soil, water, air and inside body of living organism and cause the disease act as parasite
- Locomotion take place by cilia,  flagella and Pseudopodia,  In some form of protista locomotion absent
- Cell wall May be absent or present and made up of cellulose and contain chloroplasts
- Have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules present in cilia and flagella
- Reproduction may be asexual or sexual. Asexual reproduction take place by fission, budding, spore formation or sexual reproduction fusion of haploid gametes take place and form zygote and zygote contain diploid number of chromosome
# Symgamy are of Three type
1. Isogamy :-
          When fusion of gamete are morphological similar and physiologically different Ex:- monocystis
2. Anisogamy :-
            When fusing gametes are dissimilar in shape as well as different physiology
3. Oogamy :-
          When female gamete is not motile and male gamete is motile in nature
# Classification of kingdom Protista:-
       (divides in 3 group)
+Photosynthetic Protistan :-
       – They are Eukaryotes, unicelluler, simple form and thalloid structure
     – Perform photosynthesis due to presence of chloroplastin there structure
    – cell wall present .which made up of cellulose
    – Generally, found on water
Note:- Blue green Algae (BGA) comes under kingdom monera, where as Green, red and brown algae found in kingdom plantae and other algae comes under kingdom protista
Classified in 3 Division :-
i) Chrysophytes :-
  =  Also called diatoms or golden algae
= Present in Fresh water As will as marine environment
= They have cell wall and Chloroplast so photosynthetic in nature, Cell wall is thin and two overlapping cell wall present in form of Soapbox
= On cell wall deposition of silica occur and become indestructible
= They form Diatomaceous earth
= They utilize in polishing and separation of oil and syrup
ii) Dinoflagellates :-
= Live in marine water,
= Number of flagella is 2 ,one is longtitudinally and some Is horizontally
= These flagella have phonomenun of movement
= They are photosynthetic in nature, chloroplast present ,some form emit light so bioluminisent in nature Ex:- Noctilus
= Secret toxic which kill the other animal
= Reserve food is starch or oil
iii) Euglenoids :-
= Live in fresh water
= cell wall absent
= body covered by pellicle
= Single flagella present which arise from basal body
= Chloroplast present in Euglenoids so they have chlorophyll a, b and β-carotenoids
= They perform photosynthesis and have aututrophic nutrition in the presence of light ,whereas in the absence of light. They Have heterotrophic nutrition, so this type of nutriention is mixotrophic nutrition
= Euglena act as connecting link between plant as well as animal
= It Reproduce by Longitudinal binary fission
   + Slime moulds :-
- they found in twig or dead leaves of tree,  that mean found on dead decaying organic matter
- They are protistan saprotrophitic
- Lack cell wall as well as chloroplast
- Their shape is Plasmodium
- Asexual reproduction take place by zoospore (motile) or aplanospores (non-motile)
- Sexual reproduction take place by isogamy or anisogamy
- Spore germinate on moist soil under proper condition
- They are also called decomposer b’coz they decomposes dead organic matter and help in recycling of material
+ Protozoan’s protists :-
- Have heterotrophic or halozoic nutrition
- Have aerobic or anaerobic respiration
- Excrete excess amount of H2O by help of contractile vacoule
- Show locomotion, take place by cilia,  flagella or pseudopodia
- May be free living parasite
- Have no cell wall and chloroplast
- Number of flagella May be one or two
- Have Halozoic nutrition
- Asexual reproduction take place by binary fission, multiple fission
- Sexual reproduction may be Isogamous, Anisogamous and Oogamous
Classification of Protozoan protists based on locomotory orgenelle
1. Sarcodina :-
* Locomotory organelle -pseudopodia
* Live in fresh water or marine water or some parasites
* Have holozoic or parasitic nutrition
* Body covered by plasmolemma
* Contractile vacoule present inside the body of living organism. Which help in excretion as well as osmoregulation
* Contractile vacoule generally found in fresh water forms,  that means remove excess amount of H2O from the body
* Amoeba irregular binary fission ,Ex:- Amoeba
# Amoeba :-
     – Amoeba live  in water and free living in nature
  – Locomotion take place by pseudopodia
  – Holozoic nutrition take place
- Ingestion take place by pseudopodia
- If amoeba transfer from marine water to fresh water contractile vacoule appear and vice versa
- Irregular binary fission take place in amoeba under favourable condition
- During Unfavorable condition amoeba covered by multiple protection and multiple fission take place
2. Zooflagellata :-
* Locomotion take place by flagella
* They may be fresh water, marine water or inside body of living organism
* May be free living or parasite
* Nutrition holozoic or parasitic
* Body covered by pellicle
* Undulating membrane present which is enlargement of  plasma membrane
* Contractile vacoule absent in parasitic forms
* if they are parasite cause disease in human being
* Life cycle generally complete in two host, so digenetic in nature
* Ex:- Trypanosoma
# Trypanosoma :-
- found in blood of human being
- Cause sleeping sickness
- Life cycle complete in man and Tse-tse fly
- Act as vector. Which transmit the protozoan from infected person to normal person
3. Sporozoa :-
* Locomotory organ absent
* Live inside body of living organism
* Have parasitic nutrition
* Body covered by plasmalemma
* Undulating membrane or contractile vacoule absent
* they cause disease
* Ex:- Plasmodium
# Plasmodium. :-
- Found in blood
- Cause malaria in human being
- Life cycle complete in two host
Primary host=Female Anapholis mosquito
Secondary host = man
-.Female Anapholis act as vector which transfer plasmodium from infected person to normal person
- Human being asexual reproduction take place by multiple fission
- Sporozoate act as infective stage for human being. Which secreted by saliva of female anapholes
- In female, sexual reproduction take place in stomach, male and female gametocyte infective stage for female anapholis and enter in body of it, when bite an infected person
# Control :-
+ Biological Control of malaria:-
             Gambusia live in pond which feed on larva of mosquito, so also called mosquito fish
+ Physical Control :-
             Oil spread on water
+ Medicine :-
         Quinone obtained from cinchoma tree
4) Ciliata :-
* Locomotory organ =cilia
* They are free living animal
* Generally, live in fresh water
* Holozoic nutrition
* Body Covered by plasmolemma
* Contractile vacoule present
* Undulating membrane absent
* Number of nuclei generally Two, so binucleate condition occur
* Ex:- Paramecium
- Free living
- Live in fresh water
- Body covered by cilia
- Contractile vacoule present with radiating canal
- For vacoule present
- number of nuclei two, one is micronucleus and another is macronucleus
- Asexually reproduce by transverse binary fission
- Sexually reproduce by conjugation
:::::::: Fungi :::::::
Term fungi was given by R.H Whittaker for Eukaryotic living organism. Which leave saprophytic nutrition
       Study of fungi called mycology
~ They have different morphologic and diverse habitat. Some fungi found on dead decaying organic matter, some of the fungi live inside or outside living organism and act as parasite, like as puccinia cause rust of wheat, some fungi benefial to us and produce antibiotics like as Penicillium notatum give rise to penicillin, they may be unicelluler Or multicelluler. Body of fungi simple and thalloid and filamental thalloid structure called hyphae and network of hyphae called mycelium.  Their cell wall is non-cellulosic and made up of chitin and Polysaccheride chitin chemically called N-acetyl glucosamine. Body of fungi May be Aseptate (no septum) or Septate (septate present ) and connected by simple pore or Doliopose ,nutrition May be saprophytic, parasitic, symbiotic or mycorrhizal association
# Asexual Reproduction :-
                Take place by fragmentation, fission, budding and spore formation. Spore formation is main characteristics of fungi spore are vegetative, propagules, Haploid in nature and give rise to new plant on germination spore are of two type
1. Zoospore :-
            They are flagellated motile spore produced inside zoosporangium, they carry through water current from one place to another place Ex:- Mucor
2. Sporangiospore :-
           Spore produced inside sporangium. They are non-motile through air current Ex:- Aspergiolus
3. Conidia :-
            When a chain of spore produced on hyphae. That means conidia form. When these spore break and germinate to new fungi
4. Oidia :-
         When spore break from hyphae one by one, so they called oidia
# Sexual Reproduction :-
                     Involve formation of gamete, gamete May be male or female gamete. It completes in 3 Steps
- Fusion of cytoplasm take place which called plasmogamy
- Fusion of nuclei take place called karyogamy
- Meiosis in zygote take place and produce haploid spore
# Classification :-
1. Phycomycetes /Algal fungi :-
         – Grow in twig, dead decaying leaves and have multicelluler fungi
- Body is Aseptate and Coenocytic
- Asexual reproduction take place by zoospore or Aplanospore
- Require water for movement
- May be Isogamous or Anisogamous
2. Ascomycetes (Sac fungi )
- They growth up on bread as well as dead decaying organic matter
- They may be unicelluler or multicelluler
- They May be septate or Coenocyte
- Septum has simple pore
- Asexual reproduction take place by sporangiophore
- Ascospore found in ascus.in each ascus ascospore present
- Fruiting body called ascocarps
- Sexual reproduction may be isogamous or anisogamous
3. Basidiomycetes (Club fungi):-
                – They are multicelluler fungi grown up on dead decaying organic matter
- Also called septate or Coenmocytes
- Septum contain doliopore
- Asexually reproduce by sporangiophore or fragmentation
- 4 Basidiospore present in common basidium
- Fruiting body called basidocarp Ex:- Puccinia
4. Deutromycetes (Imperfect algae):-
             – Grown on dead decaying organic matter
- They are multicelluler
- They are Septate and ceonocyte
- Asexually reproduce by spore
- Sexual reproduction may be isogamous or Anisogamous Ex:- Collectrotrichum
::::::::::: Viruses :::::::::::::
                          R.H Whittakar does not include viruses in their classification.  Viruses are single and acelluler organism. They are infectious In nature. Some of people suffer form common Cold flu disease and they caused by viruses. Viruses are inert particle when they come in air or water  ,they have no definate shape, no metabolic activities take place by them, First of all viruses discovered by Ivanowski. He observed infection in tobacco leave. Which actually caused by tobacco mosaic viruses
              Viruses enter into the host cell it has definate shape, perform metabolic activities, have the capability to reproduce on general so these characteristic of viruses show virus is living in nature
# On Basis of genetic material they classified into two group:-
@ Deoxyribovora :-
               Viruses which contain DNA as genetic material
a) Single standed of DNA found in 5 X 174 bacteriophage viruses
b) Double standed DNA found in hepatitis-A viruses, small pox viruses, Herper virus
2. Ribovora :-
                                       Viruses which have RNA as genetic material comes under this group
a) Single standed RNA found in tobacco mosaic virus,
b) Double standed RNA found in Rhenoviruses and wound tumor viruses
# Note:-
       Antibiotics are not effective in Viral disease. Viruses are not living organism, they are effective in the disease which are caused by bacteria
# Transduction:-
                       Transfer of material from one bacterium to another bacterium thru bacteriophage viruses
# Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV):-
                        Cause infection in tobacco plant and reduction in leaves of tobacco
# Bacteriophage :-
                    Is a virus. Which infects bacteria .it has DNA as genetic material
# Viroids :-
                    Smaller in size and cause disease in potato,  Viroids contain free RNA, no protein coat, Low molecular weight
# Lichen :-
               Have Symbiotic relationship and contain algae and fungi, their algal part called Phycobiont and fungal part is called mycobiont in which algal part synthesize food for lichen, Whereas fungal part protect the lichen. Lichen act as pollution indicator, if pollution occur no lichen survive their. In non-polluted environment lichen grow better
# Note:-
        In ecological succession lichen act as pioneer communicative. That mean lichen act as beginning community on base rock
# Mycorrhiza:-
             If fungal associated with roots of higher plant and form mycorrhizal association. Mycorrhiza help in more absorption of water and mineral, it is of Two type:-
- Ectomycorrhiza:-
                Fungi associated with root of higher plant from outside and form Ectomycorrhiza
- Endomycorrhiza:-
                    If fungi found inside the root of higher plant form Endomycorrhiza, Endomycorrhizal association contain VAM (Vasicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) which help in absorption of more minerals and water from the soil, it increases efficiently of root

P= Euglenida
G= Euglena
Group-I (zooflagellate)
P= Kinetoplastida
G= Trypanosoma
P= Opalinata
G= Opalina
GROUP-II (Amoeboidal protozoa)
P= Rhizopoda
C= Labosea
G= Amoeba
C= Granuloreticulosia
O= Forminiforida
G= Elephidium
P= Actinopoda
C= Radiolaria
G= Radiolaria
Group-III (Spore forming protozoa)
P= Sporozoa
G= Monocytis
C= Coccida
G= Eimeria
Group-IV (cilliated protozoa)
P= Ciliophora
C= Kinetofrogmophore
G= Balanidium
C= Oligohymenophora
G= Paramecium
G= Vorticella
C= Polyhymenophora
G= Nycnotherus

Aim: to study the Digestive system of Pheretima posthuma (Earthworm)

Digestive system consists of alimentary canal and associated glands…

Alimentary canal: straight long tube with well defined regions in continuity as described below in sequence.
1.      Mouth: Crecentric opening at prostomium.
2.      Buccal chamber: (Segment no. 1st -3rd )it’s a protrusible buccal chamber which can be protruded out and retracted back. It’s an organ of ingestion of food and also helps in burrowin.
3.      Pharynx: (segment no.3rd -4th ) pear shaped muscular chamber. The pharynx  function as a suction pump in feeding. it secretes saliva which contains mucin, for lubrication and proteolytic enzymes for digestion of proteins.
4.      Oesophagus: (segment no. 5th -8th) short and narrow tube. It passes the food from pharynx to gizzard via peristaltic movements.
5.      Gizzard:  (segment no. 8th -9th) it is thick muscular structure, internally lined with tough cuticle.
6.      Stomach: (Segment no. 9th 14th) it highly vascular and glandular structure with two sphincters at both ends to control the flow of food. Stomach secretes proteolytic enzymes.
7.      Intestine: (15th onwards) it’s also vascular and glandular part , divided into three regions:
·        Pre typhlosolar region: (15th – 26th) straight tube with two out growth at 26th segment, called intestinal caeca which secretes amylase.
·        Typhlosolar region:  (27th- last 25th segment)it is the longest, part which shows a tongue like projection in the lumen called typhlosole. Typhlosole increases surface area for absorption and also secretes the different enzymes.
·        Post typhlosolar region: (last 25 segments) also called rectum.
8.      Anus (last segment) slit like opening in the center of last segment and it is guarded by sphincter.
Digestive system of earthworm

Aim: To study the nervous system of Pheretima posthuma
The nervous system consists of three parts:
1.       Central nervous system:
a.      Nerve ring: This ring comprises of
·        Supra pharyngeal ganglion: it works as inhibitory centre. excision in it results in continuous wiggling
·        Sub pharyngeal ganglion: it works as stimulatory center. Excision in it results in spontaneous movement impairment.
·        Circum pharyngeal connectives: connect the two above mentioned ganglions.
b.      Ventral nerve cord: it extends from sub pharyngeal ganglion to posterior end of body. it is made by the fusion of two longitudinal nerve cords, which are enclosed in a common sheath. In each segment this nerve cord represents swelling called ganglia. Each ganglion gives out 3 pairs of nerves one in front, for seate and two behind for gut wall, body wall and other internal organs of segment.
2.      Peripheral nervous system:
Constitutes of the nerves given out from CNS for the different parts of the body:
·        Suprapharyngeal ganglion gives off 8-10 nerves which innervate the prostumium, buccal chamber and pharynx.
·        Circumpharyngeal connectives gives out 8 -10 nerves which innervates the prostomium, buccal chamber and pharynx.
·        Segmental ganglion gives out 3 pairs of nerves one in front, for seate and two behind for gut wall, body wall and other internal organs of segment.
3.      Sympathetic nervous system:
Consists of nerve plexus spread beneath the epidermis and on the alimentary canal and connected with circumpharyngeal.

Sense organs of Pheretima posthuma:
1.      Epidermal receptors: present all over epidermis, although more numerous on lateral sides and ventral surface of the body. They are tactile in function but also respond to changes in temperature and chemical stimuli. Each receptor shows elevated cuticle which covers tall, slender and columnar cells. These cells bear small hair like processes at their outer ends and are connected with nerves.tey are surrounded with supporting cells and basal cells.
2.      Buccal receptors: these are located in the epithelium of buccal chamber. They are similar to epidermal receptors except, they posses broad ends. They are gustatory, olfactory and chemoreceptors.
3.      Photo receptors: they are numerous on prostomium and number gradually decreases as we go down. Each receptor consists of single ovoid cell, nucleus, clear cytoplasm and transparent l shaped lens.


EARTHWORM (Pheretima posthuma)

EARTHWORM (Pheretima Posthuma)
Genus= Pheretima
Species= Posthuma
# Total 13 species
# nocturnal animal
# Burrow in moist, subterranean soil, commonly found on garden, field etc
# it have pointed anterior end through which it burrow in Soil
# It is hermaphrodite animal
# Cold blooded animal with nocturnal feature
# feed on dead organic matter
Size= 150mm to 3-5 in width
Shape= elongated, narrow cylinder body
Color= more Darker brown color in dorsal as anterior part
Mouth:-    Large, transversely terminal aperture known as peristomium
Anus:-    Vertical slit like aperture at last end segment
Female genital pore:-    In this oval is transfer into ootheca
Male genital pore :-
   200-250 minute pore, scattered on surface
Dorsal pore :-Minute aperture of coelomic chamber
Spermathecal pores:-Leads into spermarhecae to receive sperm
Genital pore :-Shallow cup-like depression at top help in copulation
Cuticle :-
Thin, elastic, noncellular protective membrane
Epidermis :-Single layered membrane beneath cuticle
Musculature :-
It lies beneath epidermis, consist circular and inner longitudinal muscle fiber
Coelonic epithelium :-Narrow invagination of epidermis called setigerous sac
1) it elasticity form body form
2) protective against injuries
3) keep skin moist
4) setae help in locomotion
5) it sometime serve respiration
   Fluid filled body cavity between body wall and alimentary canal
Alimentary canal:-

# Mouth:-
   Crescentric aperture situated at anterior end
# Buccal cavity:-
   Short, thin wall tube present behind 3rd segment
# Pharynx :-
  Pear shaped, thick, muscular
# Oesophagus:-
  Thin walled long tube structure
# Gizzard :-
   Bulb-like, oval, hard, thick-walled muscular organ help in crushing
# Stomach :-
   Thin walled narrow tube
# Intestine :-
   Largest part, thin highly vascular glandular bears villi for absorption
1) Feeding :-   Omnivour, feed on dead organic matter
2) Digestion :-    By strong expansion and contraction of gizzard grinding occur and food particle break into fine particle and further digestion occur
3) Absoption:-   Absorptive cell absorbed all nutrient and then transfer to all body
4) Egestion:-Undigested and waste products eliminate by anus
     Composed of fluid plasma and colourless corpuscles
# Blood gland:-
   Reddish, rounded bodies lying alimentary canal
    # no special organ,gasses exchange by skin which is moist
CNS (Central nervous system):-
    Consists of
1) Cerebral ganglia :-     White pear shaped fused bilobed mass
2) Circumpharyngeal connective:-   Arise from suprapharyngeal connective, join the subpharyngeal ganglia
3) Subpharyngeal ganglia :-
4) Ventral nerve cord :-    Long, fine, whitish thread like structure
     Since earthworm is hermaphrodite but copulation occur between two earthworm, due to protoandrous (sperm early mature)
Is regenerating power of an organism to reform these damaged part which removed or damaged by some reason
1) In agriculture :-     They increase fertility of soil by burrowing and swallowing In cell
2) As Food:-    Act as bate for catching fish
3) In medicine :-  Used for treating kidney stone, piles,  diarrhoea etc
Harmful effect:-4) spoil lawns and golf ground
5) their canal cause water oozing
Alimentary canal:-Straight and complete, Consists of many parts as
1) Mouth:-Crecentric aperture present at anterior part
2) Buccal cavity:-   Thin-walled tubular part
3) pharynx:-   Thin walled pear shaped sac
4) Gizzard :-  Bulb like oval shaped sac
5) Stomach :-Narrow thin  glandular tube
6) Intestine:-Saculated thin walled tube,differentiate into
# Pre-typhlosolar region:-       Have Pair of conical growth called intestinal caeca
# Typhlosolar region:-  Produce villi like longitudinal folds
# Post-typhlosolar region:-
It store the faeces and absorb water
7) Anus:-   Slit like structure  present at tip of last segment
CNS (Central nervous system ):-
  It lie along mid-ventral side consists of
1) Circum-pharyngeal nerve ring:-Surrounds pharynx formed of
# suprapharyngeal or cerebral ganglia or brain
# Sub-pharyngeal ganglia
# Circum or Peripharyngeal connective
2) Nerve cord:-Long, whitish thread-like structure, it ends at last segment of body
   Earth worm is bisexual or hermaphrodite (both male and female in same body )
Male part:-

1) Testis:-    Consist finger like projection contain spermatogonia
2) Testis sac:-
3) Seminal vesicle :-In this spermatogonia undergo spermatogenesis to form sperms in seminal vesicles
4) Seminal funnel:-It receive sperm from seminal vesicles
5) Vasa deferentia:-    Long,  narrow cilliated thread, conduct sperm by peristalis
6) Common Prostatic-Spermatic duct :-In this prostrate gland enclosed in common sheath
7) Male gonopore:-   From this prostatic spermatic ducts come out
8) Prostate glands :-Irregular lobulated gland
9) Accessory gland:-Help in copulation
Female part :-
1) Ovaries :-Whitish palmate structure
2) Oviducal Funnel:-Cillated funnel shaped structure
3) Oviducts:-
4) Female gonopore:-Circular outlet common oviduct
7) Spermathacae:-Flask shaped structure, formed by short neck and dilated ampulla


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